In the last two weeks we have reviewed the strict and
lenient approaches articulated by the twentieth century Poskim
regarding the application of makeup on Shabbat and Yom Tov.
This week we shall conclude our discussion by discussing the
detailed issues regarding how exactly a woman may apply make-
up on Shabbat and Yom Tov according to the lenient opinion.
Lipstick and Lipgloss
Rav Moshe writes (in his first responsum on this issue)
that lipstick is forbidden because it violates Tzovei’a and
Memacheik (smoothing the lipstick bar; similar to our practice not
to use bar soap on Shabbat, see Mishnah Berurah 326:30).
However, Rav Heber reports that there are commercially
available powders made for Shabbat use that are not long-lasting
and meet Rav Moshe’s criteria of Eino Mitkayeim Klal. There are
some Rabbanim who object to the use of these lip powders
claiming that the powder mixes with saliva and makes it long-
lasting. However, Rav Heber reports that he consulted with three
cosmetic chemists who all agreed that the saliva does not make
the lip powder long-lasting.
Rav Moshe writes that even liquid lipstick is forbidden
on Shabbat and Yom Tov because of Tzove’ia. Rav Bleich
explains that Rav Moshe refers to lipgloss. This appears difficult,
as untinted and clear lipgloss only produces a shine but does not
color the lips. The answer is that the Mishnah Berurah (327:12,
as explained by Rav Shlomo Zalman Auerbach, Shemirat
Shabbat Kehilchata 14: footnote 152) writes that he believes that
there is concern for Tzovei’a even if one creates only a shine.
Thus, both Rav Moshe and Rav Shlomo Zalman rule that clear lipgloss
is forbidden to be used on Shabbat and Yom Tov (unless it is Eino
Mitkayiem Klal, in which case Rav Moshe would permit its use).
Interestingly, Rav Heber reports that when Rav Moshe was
shown clear lipgloss he responded that it is forbidden because it creates
a shine. However, Rav Moshe remarked that some authorities were
lenient regarding this issue. Indeed, the Mishnah Berurah does not cite
a source for his assertion that creating a shine constitutes Tzovei’a, and
he only writes that there is a concern for Tzovei’a, perhaps indicating
that the Mishnah Berurah was not thoroughly convinced of his assertion.
Nonetheless, I have not discovered any prominent Poskim who
disagree in writing with the strict ruling of Rav Moshe and Rav Shlomo
Rav Moshe writes (in his second responsum on this topic) that
the make-up powder must be prepared before Shabbat. Rav Moshe
does not present a reason for this requirement, but Rav Heber reports
that Rav Moshe explained to his Talmidim that there is a problem of
Tochein (grinding) if one removes the powder from the cake on
Shabbat. Tochein is the Av Melachah forbidding the breaking of an item
into a very small item.
Rav Moshe’s ruling is somewhat debatable in light of the fact
that the powder was ground before it was formed into a cake during its
manufacture. Thus, it would seem to be permitted for the consumer to
grind the makeup cake as she would be grinding an item that was
previously ground. In fact, the Rama (O.C. 321:12) specifically permits
crumbling bread into crumbs to feed one’s animals on Shabbat, since
the bread was ground during its production and we apply the rule of “Ein
Tochein Achar Tochein,” (one cannot violate the prohibition of Tochein
more than once on the same item). The same rule should, at first
glance, apply to makeup powder.
However, the principle of Ein Tochein Achar
Tochein does not appear in the Gemara nor is it a self-
evident principle. The Ran (32a in the pages of the Rif s.v.
Amar Rav Papa) and the Yereim (274) present this idea,
which is supported by the Tosefta (Shabbat 13:12).
However, the Chayei Adam (Hilchot Shabbat 17:4) notes that
a minority view does not subscribe to this principle (see the
Rishonim cited in the Encyclopedia Talmudit 19:179,
footnote 334 who seem not to subscribe to this notion).
Indeed, the Chayei Adam urges us to avoid relying on this
Thus, the principle of Ein Tochein Achar Tochein is a
Chiddush (and is subject to some debate) and therefore
some Acharonim seek to limit its application. In fact, the
Ketzot Hashulchan (129:16) cites Acharonim who argue that
the principle of Ein Tochein Achar Tochein applies only to food
items. Thus, since the Rama’s Chiddush is presented in the
context of food (crumbling bread) perhaps one should not
extend the Chiddush beyond the Rama’s ruling (Ein Lecha Bo
Ela Chiddusho). Rav Heber, in turn, reports that Rav
Moshe explained to his Talmidim that one should be strict
regarding makeup since he believes that the Rama’s
ruling that Ein Tochein Achar Tochein does not apply to non-
food items. However, since this is a debatable matter,
perhaps one could be lenient in case of very great need, such
as if one forgot to remove the powder before Shabbat. One
should consult her Rav for a ruling.
Moisturizers and Mimareiach
Rav Moshe cautions women (in his second
responsum on this topic) to avoid violating the Melachah of
Memacheik when applying makeup. A prime example of this
is the application of moisturizer on Shabbat and Yom Tov. Rav
Heber reports that almost all varieties of moisturizers are in a
cream form and their application constitutes Memareiach, a
subcategory (Toladah) of Memacheik.
Memareiach (as defined by Rav Ribiat, he Thirty Nine
Melochos, 3:913) refers to smoothing soft, pliable
substances that may be pressed or molded to a shape. A
prime example of this is the Mishnah (Shabbat 146a) that
forbids spreading wax to seal a hole in a barrel. The
Gemara (Shabbat 146b) records a dispute between Rav and
Shmuel whether this prohibition applies to spreading oil to seal
a hole in a barrel.
Rav asserts that it is rabbinically forbidden to spread oil
lest one come to spread wax, whereas Shmuel permits this
activity as he does not believe in the necessity of creating such a
G’ezeirah (rabbinic enactment). The Halacha follows Rav
(Rambam Hilchot Shabbat 23:11 and Shulchan Aruch O.C.
314:11) as is the usual protocol in the context of ritual matters
(Issurei). Rav Ribiat (The Thirty Nine Melochos 3:919) writes
that rouge creams, eye-shadow creams, petroleum jelly, and
hand creams such as Nivea and Desitin are included in this
However, it appears that even Rav concedes that this
rabbinic prohibition does not apply to all substances. Rashi (ad.
loc. s.v. Mishcha) adds that this prohibition applies only to thick
oil. The Shulchan Aruch (ad. loc., as emphasized by the
Mishnah Berurah 314:46) rules in accordance with Rashi. The
Mishna Berurah explains that since thick oil may be spread a bit,
it is similar to wax and hence the Gezeirah is appropriate.
The question, though, is how to determine precisely
which items are included in this rabbinic prohibition. A classic
illustration of this problem is the question of the permissibility of
using liquid soap on Shabbat. The Aruch Hashulchan (O.C.
326:11) and the Ketzot Hashulchan (146:32) permit the use of
liquid soap on Shabbat. They believe that liquid soap is not
comparable to thick oil and thus the prohibition of Memareiach
does not apply. Dayan Posen (Kitzur Hilchot Shabbat p. 74)
notes that common practice is to follow this lenient ruling.
Shemirat Shabbat Kehilchata (14:16) essentially rules in
accordance with this approach.
Defining Memareiach – Rav Moshe, Dayan Posen and Rav
Based on this ruling, Dayan Posen (ad. loc.; p. 145,
32:19) sets a standard for what items are included in the rabbinic
prohibition of Memareiach. He writes, “Anything that is thick to
the extent that it cannot pour, does not flow by itself, and needs
to be smoothed out is similar to Memareiach and is forbidden.
Liquid soap is permissible as it pours, flows by itself, and does
not need to be smoothed out.”
Dayan Posen adds that since the classic Poskim
present no objective standard regarding this issue and that since
this is only a rabbinic prohibition, one has the right to adopt a
limited definition of the rabbinic level prohibition of Memareiach.
Rav Ribiat (The Thirty Nine Melochos 3:920) essentially adopts
this approach as normative. He discusses this at length in a
Hebrew footnote (3:682-685). Rav Ribiat writes based on this
standard, that baby oils, lubricating jellies (such as KY jelly) and
olive oil are permissible to use on Shabbat.
On the other hand, Rav Moshe Feinstein (Teshuvot
Igrot Moshe O.C. 1:113), while noting the lenient practice of
many to use liquid soap on Shabbat, expresses serious
reservations about this lenient approach. He is concerned that
even liquid soap can be spread and thus should be included in
the rabbinic level prohibition of Memareiach. Based on this ruling
of Rav Moshe, Rav Binyamin Zilber (Brit Olam) rules that any
item that is even just somewhat thick is included in the rabbinic
level prohibition of Memareiach. Rav Ribiat notes the practice of
some to water down their liquid soap before Shabbat in order to
accommodate the strict approach and Shmirat Shabbat
Kehilchata (ad. loc.) writes that it is “good” (but not required) to
accommodate Rav Moshe’s strict opinion.
Rav Heber reports that Rav Moshe Heinemann, the
Rabbinic Administrator of the Star-K, adopts a compromise
position between Rav Moshe and Dayan Posen. Rav Heber
reports that he and Rav Heinemann (a major Poseik who is
renown for being highly mechanically adept) devoted a
number of hours testing the viscosity (the property of
resistance to flow in a fluid, that is measured in units called
centipoise, cP) of various liquid soaps. Rav Heinemann
concluded that only oils with a viscosity of 600 cP or less are
not included in the rabbinic prohibition. Thus, he forbids the
use of Softsoap Liquid Hand Soap on Shabbat since its
viscosity is higher than 600 cP. On the other hand, he permits
Ultra Dawn Concentrated Dish Liquid / Anti-Bacterial Hand Soap,
because its viscosity is 600 cP. He notes, though, that this
measurement applies only when the room temperature is 70 degrees
Fahrenheit; the lower the temperature, the higher the viscosity.
One might question the use of a viscometer regarding this
issue, if Chazal and the classic Poskim did not use such a machine.
Chazal and classic Poskim clearly used common sense perception to
reach conclusions regarding this matter. One might reply that each
generation is required to use the tools that are available at the time in
rendering Halachic decisions. This is an example of a broad Halachic
issue that has numerous applications in a wide range of issues: whether
common sense judgment or accurate measurement is necessary. For
further discussion of this issue, see my Gray Matter pp. 182-184 and my
essay in Beit Yitzchak 33:450-453. We should note that a benefit of
Rav Heinemann’s standard is that it helps cosmetic chemists develop
products that are permissible to use on Shabbat and Yom Tov. Thus, a
precise technically accurate definition is beneficial regarding this issue.
In sum, three standards exist regarding the definition of
Memareiach on Shabbat – Rav Moshe, Dayan Posen and Rav
Heinemann. One should consult his Rav for a ruling regarding which
opinion to follow. This dispute impacts the question of the permissibility
of using moisturizers, as a specially prepared watered down moisturizer
is potentially permissible to use on Shabbat and Yom Tov. The
question is how much must it be watered down in order to render it
permissible for Shabbat and Yom Tov use.
Many cosmetics are forbidden on Shabbat and Yom Tov
according to all opinions. No consensus, though, has been reached
regarding the permissibility of the use of temporary makeup on Shabbat
and Yom Tov. Undoubtedly, it is best to avoid applying any makeup on
these days. However, as a Talmid of Rav Soloveitchik, I believe that if a
woman feels that it is essential for her to apply makeup on Shabbat and
Yom Tov, she has the right to follow the lenient opinion if she strictly
adheres to Rav Moshe’s guidelines. This is especially true in light of the
fact that the Rambam, Beit Yosef, Magen Avraham, Mishnah Berurah
and Aruch Hashulchan all agree that the prohibition of applying makeup
is only rabbinic in nature.
However, only products that a competent and trained Posek
has permitted for use on Shabbat and Yom Tov may be used even
according to the lenient opinion. It is also strongly recommended that a
woman who follows the lenient approach consult Rabbi Heber’s essay
(available at www.star-k.org) for a lengthy description of how to avoid
the numerous pitfalls involved in applying makeup on Shabbat and Yom
Tov. A woman should consult her Rav for a ruling regarding all of the
matters that we have discussed.
It is evident from these past two essays that contemporary
(and classic) Rabbanim are extraordinarily sensitive to the need that
many women have to apply makeup on Shabbat and Yom Tov.
Rabbanim such as Rav Moshe Feinstein and Rav Moshe
Heinemann devoted many hours to insuring that women have an
opportunity to use makeup on Shabbat and Yom Tov in a
permissible manner. This follows the tradition of Chazal of being
exceedingly sensitive to the needs of Bnot Yisrael.